Literature Review on the Relationship Between Employment and Autonomy of Individuals with Mental Illness (Session 5D)
Main Topic: Employment
Session Type: Paper
BACKGROUND. Employing individuals with psychiatric disabilities has been compulsory for Japanese companies, depending on their size, since 2018. With that, the number of people with psychiatric disabilities who work in general business fields, which are not welfare oriented, is rising. However, as a whole, the percentage of people with psychiatric disabilities who have gotten a job is only at 10%. On the other hand, occupation brings about recovery to them. People with psychiatric disabilities, through their job, can enhance their self-actualization and self-esteem, and learn ways to cope with their symptoms on their own which would improve their quality of lives. Previous literature indicated that work motivation is a key factor as occupational functions for people with psychiatric disabilities. Moreover, people with psychiatric disabilities making autonomous decisions would achieve better treatment outcomes than others. Their autonomy should have a great impact on their employment outcomes. However, it has not been clear as to how psychiatric service providers could enhance the work motivation and autonomy of individuals with psychiatric disabilities.
PURPOSE. The purpose of this study was to clarify the factors derived from previous literature that would enhance the autonomy in the process of recovery and employment of individuals with psychiatric disabilities. The research questions are as follows; (1) How does the promotion of autonomy affect on the employment of people with psychiatric disabilities? (2) What are the factors of work motivation autonomy which affect on employment and job retention of people with psychiatric disabilities?
METHOD. We used multiple databases and selected documents that met eligibility criteria for the review. The eligibility criteria were as follows; (1)The literature is about people with psychiatric disabilities, excluding intellectual and developmental disabilities. (2) The variable is autonomy or self-determination in employment in the case of quantitative studies. (3) The qualitative studies include the relationships between employment and autonomy or self-determination from the perspective of individuals with psychiatric disabilities. (4) Must be an original article.
RESULTS & DISCUSSION. A total of 285 studies were identified through the literature search of the database, Medline/ PsycINFO(Ovid). Subsequently, they were screened by their titles and abstracts, and as a result, 251 studies were excluded. Also 4 articles were added by PubMed. The remaining 38 full-text documents were assessed for eligibility for the review, and 30 studies were excluded. Finally, the remaining 8 studies were included in the review. Results indicated that factors relating to the relationship between employment and autonomy can be classified into the following 4 themes;(1)personal relationships with supporters, (2)structures created by working, (3)significance of work, and (4)access to self-selection opportunities. Implications of the study included; support for self-management of symptoms, motivational interviewing, and support techniques which promote autonomy for people with psychiatric disabilities. Further studies should examine the effectiveness of supporting techniques for people with psychiatric disabilities to increase their autonomy at work.
- To understand the factors of work motivation autonomy on employment and job retention of people with psychiatric disabilities.
- To learn how to promote autonomy for people with psychiatric disabilities through the process of employment.
- To find out what kind of employment support is needed to for people with psychiatric disabilities.
Keywords: autonomy, self-determination, employment, mental illness
Dr. Jun YaedaUniversity of Tsukuba - Associate Professor at Rehabilitation Course
University of Tsukuba
Jun Yaeda is an associate professor at Rehabilitation Course, University of Tsukuba, Tokyo, Japan. His research interests include: rehabilitation philosophy, vocational rehabilitation counseling, and international rehabilitation education.
Ms. Yumi YuzawaTanzawa Hospital - Psychiatric Social Worker
Yumi Yuzawa is a Certified Psychiatric Social Worker and a Certified Career Consultant. She works in the daycare department of a psychiatric hospital in Kanagawa, Japan. She is currently in charge of employment support for people with psychiatric disabilities. She has two responsibilities: an employment support program for people with psychiatric disabilities who want to work and a return-to-work program for people who are on long-term leave of absence due to mental illness. Previously, She was a manager at an HR department in a private practice, and a manager at a music production in Tokyo. Throughout her career, she has focused on creating an environment where people can fulfill their potential. She also has a master’s degree in rehabilitation and is practitioner-researcher. Her current research interests include return-to-work, employment support and comprehensive rehabilitation of individuals with mental health issues. Especially, she recently has been conducting her research on how the autonomy of people with psychiatric disabilities has been lost through their process of disease.